The Principles of Training
Duration – The major aim of training is that it is a long-term investment. Biological, physiological, psychomotor, neuromuscular and cardiovascular changes all take time to develop and become noticeable in human structures. Improvements do not take place over night! The law of duration implies that the training should last long enough calendar-wise and also per individual session to produce an effect. How long do I have to train?
Intensity – Implies that the training level is relatively hard, involving some element of overload, which stresses the human biological system and produces a change or coping response. This could be faster efforts, heavier weight, more complexity or less rest, etc. The intensity can be checked by heart rate response or percentage of one repetition maximum. How hard do I have to train?
Frequency – Training should also be done regularly to continue the rate of adaptation to exercise and not leave a gap where loss of benefits can occur. How many times per week?
Specificity – Training will only produce adaptation in the biological systems stressed by the training. These changes will mirror the type of stress placed in training and adapt to it. The best way to improve in any sport is to do exercises in training that can be related to the sport in question. Is the exercise going to achieve the desired results?
Overload – This means that for adaptation to occur then the stimulus presented in training must be enough to challenge the physiological system. Training must be progressive and move on when things get easy. Is there a challenge?